Enemy Alien

Used interchangeably with Alien Enemy. A government classification pursuant to the Alien Enemies Act for a citizen of a country with which the United States is at war or which threatens invasion. Such a person may be an immigrant who has lived in the U.S. for many years, or a student, tourist, diplomat, or someone […]

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Evacuation

The process of moving people from a place (e.g., homes and communities), especially for protection (e.g., from dangers such as hurricanes). Euphemism used by the U.S. government during WWII to refer to the forced removal of German, Italian and Japanese “enemy aliens” from designated coastal and military prohibited zones–not to protect them from danger, but […]

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Exchange of civilian prisoners

As war escalated in Europe and the Far East in the late 1930s, the U.S. government began to make preparations for the repatriation of U.S. citizens from those war zones. The U.S. civilian prisoner exchange plan included forced removal, indefinite internment, and deportation. From May 1942 – 1945, over 4800 “enemy aliens” and their U.S. […]

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Exclusion zones

Restricted military areas (approximately one-third of the U.S.) from which all U.S. citizens and “enemy aliens” of Japanese ancestry as well as German and Italian “enemy aliens” (and often with their families) were excluded. Some U.S. citizens of German and Italian ancestry were also excluded on an individual basis. The designation of these military areas […]

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Illegal Alien

An alien who has entered the United States without government permission or stayed beyond the termination date of a visa. During WWII, all persons of German, Italian and Japanese ancestry who were taken from Latin America and brought to the US for internment were classified as “illegal aliens.” Additionally, German and Italian seamen removed from […]

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